[E–book] How Europe Underdeveloped Africa

  • Paperback
  • 312
  • How Europe Underdeveloped Africa
  • Walter Rodney
  • English
  • 08 July 2020
  • 9780882580968

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Download · PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Á Walter Rodney Walter Rodney Á 2 Read & download Free read How Europe Underdeveloped Africa Oples the uestion of power determines maneuverability in bargaining the extent to which a people survive as a physical and cultural entity When one society finds itself forced to relinuish power entirely to another society that in itself is a form of underdevelopmentBefore a bomb ended his life in the summer of 1980 Walter Rodney had created a powerful legacy This pivotal work How Europe Und Amazing Incredible Eye opening ground breaking gripping exciting wonderfulI love this book and I wished I had read it years ago Not only does it throw open the colonial exploitation of Africa but it brings pre Colonial and pre European Slave Trade Africa to life Rodney puts together a biting criticism of Europe s interaction with Africa starting in the 15th century with trading both the slave trade and the trade in goods This essentially killed inter Africa trade forcing African civilizations to only trade with European and other western economies This also changed the economies of African civilizations to suit what the traders wanted whether human beings cotton or minerals When European powers grew as a result of the profits from trade they then carved Africa into its current state and entered the continent to force and production of things that would increase profit for the western markets Banks industries and nations prospered by the use of underpaid sometimes forced African labor Meanwhile civilizations fell apart and education came to a stand still This book left me further convinced in the concept of reparations not just for slavery but for the destruction of an entire continent and all the people that came from there in the last 500 yearsI usually reserve five stars for books that I consider feminist as well as good This book written in the late 1960 s is not feminist because the author freuently refers to all of society as man However at the same time he points out that the western world has yet to emancipate women paraphrase there and includes other observations that I consider admirable for a pre second wave male writer to make I am hungry to read an update of this book about the events in Africa in the last 40 years with a focus on the Bahutu and Batutsi issues in Rwanda and Brundi the independence of the white ruled states of Namibia and Botswana the breakdown of Somoli governance and of course the lifting of Apartheid in South Africa I d like to know about the status of manufacturing on the continent and any kind of efforts to move away from monocrop economies to diversified and healthy economies How is the discovery of oil in Nigeria and Angola affecting those nations from this viewpoint

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Download · PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Á Walter Rodney Walter Rodney Á 2 Read & download Free read How Europe Underdeveloped Africa The decisiveness of the short period of colonialism and its negative conseuences for Africa spring mainly from the fact that Africa lost power Power is the ultimate determinant in human society being basic to the relations within any group and between groups It implies the ability to defend one's interests and if necessary to impose one’s will by any means available In relations between pe The first three chapters on development in general and development in Africa before the arrival of Europeans and development in Europe were uite dull though the second has many fascinating snippets of information it was too brief a tour to give the subject the kind of attention that would make it enjoyable rather than necessary and I wasn t convinced that measuring social conditions in the various African societies against a very Eurocentric model of so called development was actually needed or even appropriate Nonetheless the book became much better in my opinion when it arrived at the main subject the exploitation of Africa and Africans by EuropeansThe last three chapters cover the period of slavery the period of colonialism independence and the supposed benefits of colonialism for Africa These chapters are full of excellent material that remains highly relevant given that Europeans continue to assert that colonialism was beneficial and to exploit African countries and other regions Like many texts this one makes clear how Europeans gained our wealth through plunder and exploitationAmong the many things pointed out by Rodney that I hadn t known or realised the importance of before or just found especially salient were The effect of depopulation by the European slave trade which removed able bodied adults from Africa It seems obvious that this would cause economic problems for the preyed on region but I had never thought of this because I had not grasped the sheer scale of that slave trade The effect of European monopolies and trade rules on technology and innovation in Africa and relatedly the huge benefits of trading internally and locally Globalization of capitalism neo colonial exploitation and to fight it ditch oppressive trade treaties support local industries trade with your neighbours Throughout the colonial period the difference between the prices of exported raw materials and imported manufactured goods got worse in Europe s favour In 1939 with the same uantity of primary goods colonies could buy only 60% of manufactured goods which they bough in the decade 1870 80 before colonial rule By 1960 the amount of European manufactured goods purchasable by the same uantity of African raw materials had fallen still further There was no objective economic law which determined that primary produce should be worth so little Indeed the developed countries sold certain raw materials like timber and wheat at much higher prices than a colony could command The explanation is that the uneual exchange was forced upon Africa by the political and military supremacy of the colonizers just as in the sphere of international relations uneual treaties were forced on small states in the dependencies like those in Latin America Colonies were taxed Africans paid for the upkeep of the governors and police who oppressed them and served as watchdogs for private capitalists taxes and customs duties were levied in the nineteeth century with the aim of allowing the colonial powers to recover the costs of the armed forces which they dispatched to conuer Africa In effect therefore the colonial governments never put a penny into the colonies Finally when all else failed colonial powers resorted widely to the physical coercion of labor backed up of course by legal sanctions since anything which the colonial government chose to do was legal the simplest form of forced labour was that which colonial governments exacted to carry out public works Labor for a given number of days per year had to be given free for these public works building castles for governors prisons for Africans barracks for troops and bungalows for colonial officials A great deal of this forced labor went into the construction of roads railways and ports to provide the infrastructure for private capitalist investment and to facilitate the export of cash crops Taking only one example from the British colony of Sierra Leone one finds that the railway which started at the end of the nineteenth century reuired forced labour from thousands of peasants driven from the villages The hard work and appalling conditions led to the death of a large number of those engaged in work on the railway In British territories this kind of forced labor including juvenile labor was widespread enough to call forth in 1923 a Native Authority Ordinance restricting the use of compulsory labor for porterage railway and road building More often than not means were found of circumventing this legislation An international Forced Labor Convention was signed by all colonial powers in 1930 but again it was flouted in practiceIn the last chapter Rodney dismisses the still popular argument that colonialism somehow benefited the colonies The argument suggests that on one hand there was exploitation and oppression but on the other hand colonial governments did much for the benefit of Africans and they developed Africa It is our contention that this is completely false Colonialism had only one hand it was a one armed bandit What did colonial governments do in the interest of Africans Supposedly they built railroads schools hospitals and the like The sum total of these services was amazingly smallFirst he points out the paltriness of the total expenditure on social services in the colonies then he shows how the vast majority of these services were provided for white settlers and expatriates it is well known that whites created an infrastructure to afford themselves leisured and enjoyable livesIbadan one of the most heavily populated cities in Africa had only about 50 Europeans before the last war For those chosen few the British colonial government maintained a segregated hospital service of 11 beds in well furnished surroundings There were 34 beds for the half million blacks altogether the 4000 Europeans in the country in the 1930s had 12 modern hospitals while the African population of at least 40 million had 52 hospitalsRodney goes on to discuss how exploited workers in unhealthy industries such as miners had no access to health care and rural areas which produced cash crops had no social services at all Social services to which Africans did have access were provided solely to facilitate exploitation Roads and railways had a clear geographical distribution according to which particular regions needed to be opened up to import export activities Where exports were not available roads and railways had no place The only slight exception is that certain roads and railways were built to move troops and make conuest and oppression easierApologists for colonialism are uick to say that the money for schools hospitals and such services in Africa was provided by the British French or Belgian taxpayer It defies logic to admit that the profits from a given colony in a given year totalled several million dollars and to affirm nevertheless that the few thousand dollars allocated to social services in that colony was the money of European taxpayersI will leave out huge swathes of material on areas like banking agriculture the disastrous creation of monocultures for example and industry and discussion of the negative economic political and social effects of colonialism in this chapter including on the status of women Colonialism created the conditions for neo colonial exploitation and dependence But the one thing I found most interesting and impressive about Rodney s work is his discussion of education Pre colonial education in Africa was outstandingly relevant he explains in contrast to colonial education the main purpose of which was to train Africans to help man the local administration at the lowest ranks and staff the private capitalist firms staffed by Europeans In effect that meant selecting a few Africans to participate in the domination and exploitation of the continent as a whole it sought to instill a sense of deference towards all that was European and capitalist Education in Europe was dominated by the capitalist class The same class bias was automatically transferred to Africa and to make matters worse the racism and cultural boastfulness harboured by capitalism were also included in the package of colonial education Colonial schooling was education for subordination exploitation the creation of mental confusion and the development of underdevelopmentRodney uotes statistics showing the small number of school places The levels of secondary education were low and higher education almost non existent What education there was included generous doses of propaganda The education a person received the alienated and separated from their culture they became Abdou Moumini is uoted colonial education corrupted the thinking and sensibilities of the African and filled him with abnormal complexes The church played its part its role was primarily to preserve the social relations of colonialism therefore it stressed humility docility and acceptanceDespite this and this is the exciting part Africans struggled hard to gain education and the fruit of that struggle ultimately in combination with other aspects of liberation struggle was independenceThe educated played a role in African independence struggles far out of proportion to their numbers because they took it upon themselves and were called upon to articulate the interests of all AfricansIf there is anything glorious about the history of African colonial education it lies not in the crumbs which were dropped by European exploiters but in the tremendous vigor displayed by Africans in mastering the principles of the system that had mastered them In most colonies there was an initial period of indifference towards school education but once it was understood that schooling represented one of the few avenues of advance within colonial society it became a uestion of African clamoring and pushing the colonialists much further than they intended to goAfricans everywhere put their money often savings were hard won through self denial into building schools and put pressure on colonial institutions to provide schooling Administrations were unwilling to comply The Beecher report on education in KenyaIlliterates with the right attitude to manual employment are preferable to products of the schools who are not readily disposed to enter manual employmentKenya had two independent school associations as mentioned by Ng g wa Thiong o although I forget in which book which were immediately closed when the Mau Mau war for liberation broke out it was not really necessary to get the idea of freedom from a European book What the educated African extracted from European schooling was a particular formation of the concept of political freedom But it did not take much to elicit a response from their own instinctive tendency for freedom that universal tendency to seek freedom manifested itself among Africans even when the most careful steps were taken to extinguish it Teachers were supposed to have been steeped in the culture of domination but in the end many of them stood in the vanguard of national liberation movementsThe chapter ends by emphasising that the mass of the people were involved in winning independence but a detail account of the process would reuire a long text for each state so it is not given The post independence or postcolonial situation and neo colonial exploitation is left for other books to address

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Download · PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Á Walter Rodney Walter Rodney Á 2 Read & download Free read How Europe Underdeveloped Africa Erdeveloped Africa had already brought a new perspective to the uestion of underdevelopment in Africa his Marxist analysis went far beyond the heretofore accepted approach in the study of Third World underdevelopment How Europe Underdeveloped Africa is an excellent introductory study for the student who wishes to better understand the dynamics of Africa’s contemporary relations with the We A historiographical approach to the detriment of African plight and continued exploitation Very relevant today and good for anyone searching for suppressed historical truths A Book for all who seek to know the truth about African nations oppression and subjugation by the Secret government behind the Western powers Europe and other developed nations of the Western world are handgloves through which the globalist operate to keep nations impoverished and in debt Africa was the experiment and now the same power is now turning around to under develop the rest of the civilized world so as to usher in the One World government